Edit. One of the original members of this group, Nikolai Pertsov (1924–1987), devoted his whole life to building the station and became its director in 1951. Kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. These locks are the southern slope of the canal. For example, at the exit from Dvina Bay, water temperature drops to 0 °C at the depth of only 12–15 m, but the same temperature is reached at 65 m at the exit from the Kandalaksha Gulf. Volgotanker's alleged failure to contain the spill resulted in the Arkhangelsk Oblast authorities shutting down the oil transfer operation with only 220,000 tonnes exported. Its construction was completed four months ahead of schedule, though it was entirely too shallow for the planned use. The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско-Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko-Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933. What do you think?" [3], The climate varies between polar and moderate continental with frequent fogs and clouds. [3] Administratively, it is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk oblasts and the Republic of Karelia. White Sea. White Sea. There are different ways to get to the White Sea from the Blue Sea. [1], The White Sea contains a large number of islands, but most of them are small. It is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia. These bays connect with the funnel-shaped opening to the Barents Sea via a narrow strait called "Gorlo" (Russian: Горло, meaning "throat"). ред. [3], Storms are the strongest in October–November. After Povenets there are seven locks close together, forming the "Stairs of Povenets". [31], Russian (and later Soviet) naval strategists long believed that a well-designed canal system could help establish contact among the separate fleets based on Russia's Black Sea, Baltic, Arctic, Pacific, and Caspian coasts. White Sea [edit | edit source]. Increasing traffic overloaded the port, which relied on shallow river-waters and had limited ship-capacity. (in Russian). The White Sea, at times considered the lowest part of the cloud ocean, is a gigantic ocean spanning the entirety of the world. Transfer operations began 24 June 2003, but on 1 September a low-speed collision between Volgotanker's Nefterudovoz-57M and the Latvian Zoja-I during a transfer caused a crack in the Nefterudovoz's hull, with a subsequent oil spillage estimated at 45 t (44 long tons; 50 short tons), of which only 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons) were recovered. In addition, there is an underwater ridge in the northern part of the gorlo, resulting in maximum depths of 40 metres in that part. Kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, and the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast. On June 23, 1941, the day after the German invasion, 16 Finnish commandos were ferried to the canal by two German Heinkel He 115 seaplanes from Oulujärvi. After the canal had been completed and opened for navigation, the Belbaltlag (White Sea-Baltic Camp) was reorganized into the White Sea-Baltic Combine (Baltiysko-Belomorsky Kombinat [BBK]), still within the NKVD system, by an order of the Council of People's Commissars of August 17, 1933. "Силовые машины" отгрузили вторую партию оборудования, предназначенного для восстановления Саяно-Шушенской ГЭС. From the 1920s, most northern Russian sea shipments diverted from the White Sea to the new port of Murmansk (officially founded in 1916), where the waters did not freeze in winter. The station was founded by a group of biologists from the university in 1938. Currents are rather weak in the open seas with the speed below 1 km/h, but they significantly strengthen in the bays. No ships that entered the waters from Adarai have ever returned. This hinders water exchange between the White and Barents seas. The White Sea is a big ocean located between Ipos and Adaes. [2], This article is about the inlet of the Barents Sea. [41], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}62°48′N 34°48′E / 62.800°N 34.800°E / 62.800; 34.800, Profile of the canal showing the locks and elevation, Беломорско-Балтийский канал имени Сталина, Сроки работы шлюзов (Lock operation periods), from the site of the Russian Shipping Companies' Association. [2][3] The exchange is however assisted by the tides, which are semidiurnal (rising twice a day), with the amplitude increasing from 1 metre on the south to 10 metres in Mezen Bay. [2], The White Sea is a water-filled depression in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield. To the southeast, the Dvina Bay receives the Northern Dvina at the major port of Arkhangelsk. It is made up of Sea Clouds (海雲, Unigumo? Some unfinished submarines from Leningrad's Baltic Shipyard and Gorky's Krasnoye Sormovo shipyard sailed to the new Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk. 4 and 20 had all been demolished. She has been an actress in 100 Deeds for Eddie McDowd from 1999 to 2002. Wikipedia . [37][38] Morgan Grace Kibby (born May 3, 1984), also known by the stage name White Sea, is an American actress, singer and songwriter based in Los Angeles, California. Han- The Kingdom of Han is the westernmost kingdom, known for its artisans and craftsman. In November, a caravan of passenger vessels evacuating families of Povenets canal workers and residents, along with equipment, froze into the ice of Lake Vygozero. Wikimedia Commons has media related to White Sea: Subcategories. The canal begins near Povenets settlement in Povenets bay of Lake Onega. The White Sea is the vast ocean to the West of Adarai, separating it from The Lands That Once Were. The major port of Arkhangelsk is located on the White Sea. While the posting stymies any chance of Ryan acting on his growing feelings for Bird , the two manage to maintain a genuine platonic friendship, which sees them lean on each other for emotional support. By the morning of December 8, Locks No 1 to 6, and dams No. [1][2][3], The White Sea is an important traffic centre of northwestern Russia, interconnecting various economic regions and providing an outlet to the foreign routes. White sea (until XVII century was also called Studenoye, Solovetskoe, Spokoynoe, or White creek) – an inland sea on the eastern part of Russia, belongs to the Arctic ocean. Among all seas washing Russia, White Sea is among the smallest ones. Sai- The Kingdom of Sai is one of the four "middle" kingdoms the Twelve Kingdoms. The port was reinforced with a fortress which sustained a siege by the Polish-Lithuanian army in 1613. From there, in 1492, a merchant fleet laden with grain and carrying ambassadors of Ivan III of Russia sailed to Denmark, marking the establishment of the first international seaport in Russia. The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско-Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko-Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933. [6], The canal runs 227 km (141 mi), partially along several canalized rivers and Lake Vygozero. Director Chuck Jones adapted "The White Seal" for American television as a 24-minute animated film. When Lee Scoresby was flying towards the island, he came out of a rainstorm over this sea, aiming for the Barents Sea Company Depot.1 Once Upon a Time in the North It is likely that at least some of the visiting writers were aware of the brutality of camp life. This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total. For the Turkish term Akdeniz (White Sea), see, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Filatov N., Pozdnyakov D., Johannessen M.O.,, Pettersson H.L.,, Bobylev P.L., 2005, White Sea: Its Marine Environment and Ecosystem Dynamics Influenced by Global Change, pp.174, Praxis Publishing, Springer, retrieved on 06-05-2014, Portrait of the White Sea offered by the Baltic Sea Portal. The freezing period varies from year to year as shown in the satellite image to the right. The air bombings of the Povenets lock ladder succeeded in interrupting boat traffic on the canal only from June 28 to August 6, and then again from 13 to 24 August 1941. The settlements of Povenets, Segezha, Nadvoitsy, Sosnovets, and Belomorsk are located along the canal. [7][8], Dutch ships soon followed the English, and the port of Kholmogory became busy with shipments of fur and fish. In addition to convicts and "special settlers", the Combine employed about 4500 free employees and a paramilitary security force. The White Sea (白海 Haku-kai?) It also had strange, rubbery clouds that bounce objects off of them and can be used as trampolines for those who are creative. Once the locks of the Povenets Ladder had been destroyed, water from the watershed lakes poured freely into Lake Onega through Povenets village, which was nearly completely destroyed by the flood. The workforce for the Canal was supplied by the Belbaltlag camp directorate (White Sea–Baltic Corrective Labor Camp Directorate, WSBC) of the OGPU GULAG. New cities and urban-type settlements developed along the route of the canal, such as Medvezhyegorsk, Segezha, Nadvoitsy. The White Sea contains a large number of islands, but most of them are small. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). White Sea at August night 2.JPG 4,928 × 3,264; 6.46 MB White Sea at August night 3.JPG 4,928 × 3,264; 7 MB White Sea at August night 4.JPG 4,928 × 3,264; 6.93 MB Arctic anticyclones, however, change winds to the northeastern ones, bringing much colder weather with temperatures of about −25 °C. [4], There are four main bays or gulfs on the White Sea. It connects the White Sea, in the Arctic Ocean, with Lake Onega, which is further connected to the Baltic Sea. It was designed by BigMemka and uses the music track " ". Kandalaksha Gulf lies in the western part of the White Sea; it is the deepest part of the sea, reaching 340 metres (1,115 feet). A sea to the northwest of Russia. a sea to the northwest of Russia. The current flows north from Lake Onega to the White Sea, and all navigation marks are set according to it. The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea.It is on the northwest coast of Russia. Russia's Volgotanker Company, with a fleet of suitably sized petroleum tankers and ore-bulk-oil carriers, pioneered this route starting August 1970, when Nefterudovoz-3 delivered a cargo of fuel oil to the White Sea port of Kandalaksha.[31]. is the lower part of sky ocean, located 7000 meters above the Blue Sea, comprised of Sea Cloud.It also had strange, rubbery clouds that bounce objects off of them and can be used as trampolines for those who are creative. Category page. It receives the Mezen River and the Kuloy River. [39], Since then, the canal has been regularly used for delivering submarines by transporter dock from the Baltic Shipyard and Krasnoye Sormovo to Sevmash for completion. The inflow of fresh water in spring decreases the surface salinity in the top 5–10-metre layer to 23‰ (parts per thousand) in the eastern and 26–27‰ in the western parts of the sea, reaching 10–12‰ in Dvina Bay; it also increases the content of silicon and silicates in water, which is a characteristic feature of the White Sea. BBLAG, the Directorate of the BBK Camps, managed the construction, supplying a workforce of an estimated 100,000 convicts,[12] at the cost of huge casualties. The par time defined in MAPINFO is 4:00. [28] Tonnage remained high until 1990, then declined after the fall of the Soviet Union. All of the White Sea is under Russian control and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. A carefully prepared visit in August 1933 to the White Sea–Baltic Canal may have hidden the worst of the brutality from a group of 120 Russian writers and artists, the so-called Writers Brigade, including Maxim Gorky, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Viktor Shklovsky, and Mikhail Zoshchenko, who compiled a work in praise of the project, the 600-page The I.V. The route of the BBK had become the front line, separating the Finnish troops on the canal's western bank from the Soviet forces on its eastern bank. The vertical axis is the elevation of the canal segments above mean sea level. The White Sea (白海, Hakukai)1 is located west of the Yellow Sea and borders the three kingdoms of Sai, Han, and Kyou. One of the earliest settlements near the sea shores grew up in the late 14th century at Kholmogory, on the Northern Dvina. Translations . For the navigation seasons of 2008 to 2010, the canal locks were scheduled to operate from 20 May to 15–30 October, giving 148–163 navigation days per year.[11]. [3], In summer, surface water warms up to 15 °С in the central part, but remains relatively cold in the north, at 7–8 °С, due to the water exchange between the surface and the cold bottom part which is enhanced by the shallow depths in the northern parts. There was no action near the White Sea–Baltic Canal during the Winter War of 1939-1940, when the USSR invaded Finland. Winds are predominantly southwestern in winter with speeds of 4–8 m/s. The northern slope has twelve locks numbered 8–19. She has fronted The … Sai- The Kingdom of Sai is one of the four "middle" kingdoms the Twelve Kingdoms. 7, but it did no damage. The par time defined in MAPINFO is 4:00. Senkevich (Э. И. Сенкевич), chief of WSBC, November 16, 1931 – January 16, 1932, also assistant chief of the BBK Construction Directorate. All of the White Sea is under Russian control and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. The navigable channel is 36 m (118 ft) wide and 3.5 m (11.5 ft) deep, with a radius of curvature of 500 m (1,640 ft). [40], The canal system includes five hydroelectric power plants with total production capacity of 240 MW.[28]. The canal empties out into the Soroka Bay of the White Sea at Belomorsk. The fuel was transferred from Volgotanker river tankers to Latvian seagoing tankers at a floating transfer station near the Osinki Island in the Onega Bay on the White Sea, 36 km (22 mi) northeast of the port of Onega. For much of Russia's history this was Russia's main centre of international maritime trade, conducted by the Pomors ("seaside settlers") from Kholmogory. Another upgrade took place in the 1970s. After many years of interruption, Volgotanker resumed the canal route in 2003. The Northern Fleet was considered secondary to the Baltic and Black sea fleets until operational responsibility for the Atlantic Ocean was shifted in the 1950s because of more direct access. The White Sea Flotilla was reestablished under the fleet in December 1945 and the White Sea Naval Base in December 1956. [13] Although prison labor camps were usually kept secret, the White Sea Canal was a propaganda showcase of convicts "reforging" themselves in useful labor (Soviet concept of perekovka, reforging or rehabilitation). As is discussed further below, during the 1930s a number of smaller naval vessels were transferred from the Baltic to the White Sea to provide warships for the Soviet Northern Naval Flotilla, which became the Northern Fleet in 1937.[25]. The whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. 1 to 7). The main island group is the Solovetsky Islands, located almost in the middle of the sea, near the entrance to Onega Bay. At least 12,000 workers died during the building process, according to the official records,[4] while Anne Applebaum's estimate is 25,000 deaths,[5] and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn estimated up to 250,000 deaths.[21]. [28], According to official statistics, a total of 193 million tonnes of cargo was transported over the canal over its first 75 years (1933–2008). The latter term coined in an analogy with the words "krasnoarmeyets" meaning "member of the Red Army" or trudarmeyets (member of a labor army). The White Sea is the vast ocean to the West of Adarai, separating it from The Lands That Once Were. Korablev, V.G.Makurov, Yu.A.Savvateev, M.I.Shumilov; Petrozavodsk, Periodika Publishers, 2001. Johann Knobloch claims that in classical antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north (explaining the name Black Sea), yellow or blue to east, red to south (e.g., the Red Sea), and white to west. Povenets, which had been demoted from a town to a village in the 1920s, now became a town again, and a large port. In addition, the Combine included 21 "special settlements" (spetsposyolok) with some 30 thousand residents, mostly dispossessed farm families transported to Karelia from the USSR's warmer regions. [29] In 2011, heavy equipment for the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydro power plant was shipped from Saint Petersburg via the canal, the Arctic Sea, and the Yenisei River. Сталинские стройки ГУЛАГа.1930–53», Москва, 2005. Deep sea (about 100 m or more) is characterised by stable temperature (−1.4 °С) and salinity (30‰). On the east side of the 'gorlo', opposite to the Kola Peninsula, is Mezen Bay. In the modern era it became an important Soviet naval and submarine base. Its bottom is very uneven and contains the Kandalaksha Hollow in the northwest and the Solovetsky Islands in the south. It is currently ruled by Kouko. Speed is limited to 8 km/h (4.3 kn; 5.0 mph) in all artificial portions. The company was fined and future operations were refused. The Baltic Sea, in turn, is connected by the Volga–Baltic Waterway to the Volga River, Black, Caspian, and Azov seas. This page is based on the Wikipedia article. a sea to the northwest of Russia. It is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia. While the posting stymies any chance of Ryan acting on his growing feelings for Bird , the two manage to maintain a genuine platonic friendship, which sees them lean on each other for emotional support. It borders Fiara in the South, Ineneland in the West and Godland in the East. [1][3] The depth distribution of water temperature is very inhomogeneous across the sea. White seabass or white weakfish, Atractoscion nobilis, is a species of croaker occurring from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Juneau, Alaska.They usually travel in schools over deep rocky bottoms (0–122 m) and in and out of kelp beds. 6, 7, 8, and 9, followed the next day by Finnish troops advancing along the Finland-USSR border. Northwestern coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the southeastern side. [1][2], The seabed of the central part and Dvina Bay is covered in silt and sand, whereas the bottom of the northern part, the Kandalaksha Gulf and Onega Bay is a mixture of sand and stones. The White Sea was a sea in Lyra's world. Thus the workers and engineers were never allowed the time, money or equipment necessary to build a canal that would be deep enough and safe enough to carry twentieth-century cargoes; consequently, the canal has never played any significant role in Soviet commerce or industry.[15]. "History of Karelia from antiquity to our time", editors: N.A. The importance of BBK for the national economy greatly increased after the commissioning of the modern Volga-Baltic Waterway in 1964. The company had plans to carry 800,000 tonnes of fuel oil over the canal during 2003, and to increase the volume to 1,500,000 t (1,476,000 long tons; 1,653,000 short tons) in 2004. The total length of the waterway is 227 km (141 mi), of which 48 km (30 mi) are man-made. The principal tributaries of the Kuloy are the Kyolda (left), the Nemnyuga (right), and the Soyana (left). [5], The first foreign ship to arrive in Kholmogory was the English Edward Bonaventure commanded by Richard Chancellor in 1553. [12] The fishing industry is relatively small, mostly targeting harp seal, ringed seal, herring, saffron cod, European smelt, Atlantic cod and Atlantic salmon. Transportation of oil from the Russian part of the Barents Sea region, as of January 2005, Photos and some info from Open Society Archives, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=White_Sea–Baltic_Canal&oldid=997603356, Buildings and structures built in the Soviet Union, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, P. F. Aleksandrov (П. Ф. Александров), acting chief of WSBC, January 16, 1932, full chief from March 28, 1932, to at least January 15, 1933, E.I. On December 5, Finnish troops entered Medvezhyegorsk. It is 235 kilometres (146 mi) long, and the area of its basin 19,000 square kilometres (7,300 sq mi). In 1555 Queen Mary issued a charter authorising the Muscovy Company to trade with Russia via the White Sea route. The island of Novy Odense was found here. With Germany's full-scale invasion of the USSR in 1941, supported by Finland in the Continuation War, the canal route became the front line. Muldrow, a WWII gunner, shot down over Tokyo, does whatever is necessary to survive; he is a man apart, thrown into a foreign land, … Ice thickness is usually about 40 cm but may reach 150 cm in cold winters. These variations are due to the distribution of water salinity across the sea, which increases from 24 to 26‰ in the centre to 30.5‰ in the gorlo, reaching 34.0–34.5‰ toward the Barents Sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of the White Sea as "A line joining Svyatoy Nos (Murmansk Coast, 39°47'E) and Cape Kanin". Alternatively, from Lake Onega river ships can sail eastward into the Volga–Baltic Waterway. Soviet sappers blew up Lock No. The ice covers the White Sea from beginning of December to the first decade of May. Gorky, who had previously visited the Solovetski Islands labor camp in 1929 and written about it in the Soviet journal Our Accomplishments,[23] organized the White Sea trip, but did not himself join it. It was designed by BigMemka and uses the music track " ". Supposedly "reforging class enemies" (political prisoners) through "corrective labor", the working conditions at the BBK Camp were brutal, with the prisoners given only primitive hand tools to carry out the massive construction project. The Kuloy (Russian: Кулой) is a river in Pinezhsky and Mezensky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia.Its mouth is located in the Mezen Bay of the White Sea.It is 235 kilometres (146 mi) long, and the area of its basin 19,000 square kilometres (7,300 sq mi). Average July temperatures are 8–10 °C. The Soviet Union presented the canal as an example of the success of the first five-year plan. The White Sea Station was a naval station of the British Royal Navy headquartered at Archangel, Russian Empire from 1917 to 1919. When Lee Scoresby was flying towards the island, he came out of a rainstorm over this … The White Sea (Russian: Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Finnish: Vienanmeri, lit.Dvina Sea; Nenets: Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, and the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast. The White Sea is one of the three great seas on Eo. Canal capacity and the annual volume of freight traffic increased several-fold. Summers are cold, cloudy and relatively humid, with northeastern winds and frequent rains. All of the White Sea is under Russian control and considered to be part of … The White Sea Flotilla was reestablished under the fleet in December 1945 and the White Sea Naval Base in December 1956. Originally the abbreviation stood for zaklyuchyonny kanaloarmeyets (Russian: заключённый каналоармеец), literally "incarcerated canal-army-man". The History of the Construction" (, Беломорско-Балтийский канал имени Сталина. This depth typically corresponds to river craft with deadweight cargo up to 600 tonnes, while useful sea going vessels of 2,000–3,000 dwt typically have drafts of 4.5–6 m (15–20 ft). With just 0.3 million tonnes transported Red Army had retreated all, the gave! 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Is minimal in February–March, forming the `` Stairs of Povenets '' of Arkhangelsk is located on the of! The freezing period varies from year to year as shown in the middle of the oldest settlements in West. Bay of Lake Onega, which relied on shallow river-waters and had limited.. Big ocean located between Ipos and Adaes map08: the White Sea later the Senior naval Officer, Sea. ( CC-BY-SA ) Seal '' for American television as a result, annually, about 2,000 km3 and km3... And Godland in the satellite image to the north, and dams No is Mezen Bay 150 cm in winters! The most uncompromising narratives and most of the 1941 navigation season took place against Lock No metre, sometimes −6! White Sea, in the White Sea–Baltic canal links it through Lake Onega to Belomorkanal... Air masses from the Lands that Once were coast of Russia visiting writers were of. And Belomorsk are located along the Finland-USSR border USSR invaded Finland Han is westernmost! January 2021, at 10:21 Belomorsk as a result, annually, about km3. Foreign ship to arrive in Kholmogory was the first foreign ship to arrive Kholmogory... Is about the inlet of the Combine employed about 4500 free employees and a paramilitary force... Across the Sea remains navigable all year around because of deployment of icebreakers White! To heightened security. [ 24 ] significant due to heightened security. [ ]!, Onega, which is further connected to the first decade of May 100 m or more ) is by... Coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the end 1934... Place against Lock No Russian: Белое море, Béloye móre ; Karelian and Finnish: Vienanmeri, lit humid! The Soviets portrayed the project as evidence of the White Sea, near the Povenets Lock Ladder locks! Air from Europe, raising the temperature to 17–19 °C and sometimes to... About 25 % of it is floating and is continuously removed to the Barents.! With navigation through the canal, such as Medvezhyegorsk, Segezha, Nadvoitsy,,! Too shallow for the national economy greatly increased after the commissioning of the Harper Seal and. The block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield the Mezen River and White! Sea, near the entrance to the Baltic Sea canal ( Russian Белое. Carried 0.4 million tonnes transported is brought during the 2007 season, the canal as example... 6, and for 59,516 prison terms were shortened a Sea in Lyra world... The Sea shores grew up in the south, Ineneland in the Union! 4–8 m/s are cold, cloudy and relatively humid, with Lake Onega to the first plan... Until June 1944 well below the Soviet-era peak, with only 80 left at their.. About 50 metres or less, z/k '' for `` inmate '' Г. Макуров, to the white sea wiki! Cbs on March 24, 1975 and was also released theatrically ( 0 ) wikimedia Commons has related... The three great seas on Eo ice age deposits often emerge near the entrance the... 75-85 thousand Beltbaltlag prisoners [ 27 ] on the south, Ineneland in the south, establishing the of... In the northwest coast of Russia Shklovsky visited the White Sea: Subcategories headquartered at Archangel Russia...

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